In the solar panel, energy is generated by means of special photocells capable of creating a photoelectric effect by converting solar rays. Such elements having the same parameters are connected to electrical circuits. The power of the solar panel depends on the number of elements connected to the circuit.
If you made a decision and want to install a power plant on solar panels, then do not hesitate and hesitate - boldly get down to business.
The only significant disadvantage may be a significant cost of installed equipment. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the cost of electricity, which is far from everyone can afford. However, after 3-5 years, your investments will pay off, since you will no longer need to pay electricity bills. The electric power received by means of such system is capable to completely provide needs of any private house.
Preparatory and assembly work
The first stage of assemblage does not at all imply a complete complete set of the solar system. If you need additional power for further operation, you can always increase the power consumption by connecting the required number of additional modules.
To create a solar home power plant you will need:
- solar panels of the required capacity;
- Charge controllers;
- rechargeable batteries;
- connection cables.
To date, the market has a great variety of different solar panels. Before buying, determine the type of photovoltaic cells used in batteries.
- single crystal;
If you intend to install a system for your home, then single crystal or polycrystalline modules are fine. Our company provides different options for solar cells. A soldering kit and a special connecting cable will also be required for connection. The solar panels consist of brittle crystals inserted into the cells that are connected to each other, and therefore the soldering of the contacts must be done with extreme caution. And it is even better to choose the modules with the conductors already soldered to the cells. This significantly saves time. For assembly, use the same manufacturer's modules.
So, now we have chosen solar panels.
These are electronic devices that protect the batteries from excessive charging or discharging. When full charge is reached, the current produced by the solar panels is reduced to values that help compensate for self-discharge. If the discharge of the battery reaches a critical level, the supply of electricity to consumers (household appliances) ceases. Charge controllers can significantly extend the life of a domestic solar power plant.
They help prevent power outages at home. If the solar-powered power plant is the only source of electricity, then in the cloudy weather, the working capacity of household appliances will be supported only by rechargeable batteries. We also recommend the supply of a spare diesel generator that will be able to supply your home with electricity at any time.
Convert the direct current from the solar panels into an alternating current, from which all household appliances are fed. The quality of electricity produced by inverters is much higher than that coming from central power grids. When installing solar power plants, low-cost models of sinusoidal inverters are usually used, ideally suited for use in home electrical systems. Also, these devices act as a buffer between the home and municipal energy systems, which makes it possible to transfer the excess of generated electrical energy to the central grid.
For any solar power plant, special patch cables are required. To minimize energy losses, the distance between the elements to be connected should be minimal. The cross-section of the cable must correspond to the transmitted loads and be not less than 4 mm2. External open cables must be resistant to negative environmental influences.
To ensure maximum efficiency of the solar power plant, it is necessary to use general and local connection schemes. In short, it looks like this. The DC generated by the solar panels is fed to the charging controller. If the panel is one, then connect it to the controller is not difficult - plus and minus one device are connected to the same connectors of the other. If the system has several solar panels, then they are connected according to a certain local scheme.
There are the following connection schemes:
- Parallel - when connecting the clamps of solar panels of the same polarity. The output voltage remains unchanged at 12 V.
- Consecutive - when clamps of different polarity are connected. In this case, plus one panel is connected to the negative of the other, and the remaining unused clamps are attached to the controller. In this case, the output receives a voltage of 24 V, which can sometimes be used at home.
- Combined - when the modules are grouped together, a parallel connection is used internally, and the groups are connected in series to each other, which allows obtaining the most suitable output voltage characteristics.
After the charging controller, the current goes to the battery, while some of the energy is accumulated. Then an inverter, which converts the direct current received from the solar panels into a network variable, enters into operation. Next is the distribution of energy flow to the household load. Depending on the types and types, the household appliances and devices used can be divided into groups, and for each group a separate inverter can be installed, which will be the optimal solution.
Panels with photocells are usually located on the roof of the house in such a way as to be at right angles to the sun's rays. The deviation may not be more than 15 °. It should be borne in mind that with the year-round operation of a solar power plant, this angle should be positive in relation to the geographical latitude, and when used only in the summer period - negative.
On sloping roofs, the panels should be installed in rows, placing them one above the other and maintaining an inter-row distance of not less than 70% of the height of the panel. This is done so that the working surfaces of the solar panels are not obscured by each other.
All other equipment should be placed separately in a specially adapted room.
During operation, solar panels require constant maintenance. Periodically clean the working surface of the panels from any contaminants that occur during constant interaction with the external environment. Do not ignore this question. Otherwise, the system will absorb less solar energy and, accordingly, produce less electricity.