The development of technologies related to energy saving annually increases the interest in alternative energy sources, which means that the demand for equipment in this area is ahead of the offer. One of the most popular sources of renewable energy is solar, or as they are also called - heliopanels.
Despite the fact that this equipment is produced by many manufacturers and the external solar panels are almost similar, the technical characteristics and differences in the device can be very different.
Varieties of solar panels
The main difference between solar panels is the type of material from which the active elements (photocell) of panels are produced. The main element for the production of cells is silicon, but there are a great many varieties of this element:
Mono crystalline (one silicon crystal) photocell
These photocells are made from grown monocrystalline silicon. The structure of such photocells is homogeneous, the efficiency at a high level. In form, they are depending on the workpiece - either polyhedra or squares.
Poly crystalline (several silicon crystals) photocell
Are made by way of casting, in this connection structure of a cell is rather non-uniform. The efficiency of these photocells is somewhat reduced, in comparison with single-crystal cells. But the big advantage of this type of photocells is their rectangular shape, which makes it possible to completely fill the entire area of the solar panel with cells, which significantly increases the energy efficiency of the panel per unit area, in comparison with single-crystal panels.
Thin-film (flexible) photocell
The main material for production is silicon, but in its modified state - amorphous, this kind of silicon has a very important feature - flexibility. Flexibility of the solar panel is very important property - such panels can be placed on any curved surfaces. Energy efficiency of thin-film heliopanels is much lower than in previous production technologies, but the low cost of production causes their low cost, and hence a great demand among consumers.
The design of solar panels
Designed to create the rigidity of the entire panel design, protects against damage, usually has fastening elements on various surfaces, is made mostly of aluminum or duralumin.
It is designed to protect active elements from the effects of rain, hail, dust, wind, etc. For solar panels use special glasses with hardening and maximum light transmission capacity.
Film-laminate (upper / lower)
The name of the film speaks for itself, the lamination is designed to seal and ensure maximum contact with the glass of active elements, which is necessary to improve efficiency. If there is an air gap between the glass and the photocell, this will lead to an additional refraction of the rays, which means that the energy efficiency of the panel will be reduced.
Directly the photocells themselves are made of silicon.
Polyethylene film serves to protect the panel from the rear.
Clamping / soldering box
It is intended for placing pins directly from the panel and their further disconnection according to the scheme. Usually, it also contains solar panel protection elements.
Features of choice.
In addition to the type of solar panels based on the composition of cell photocells, an important factor in choosing is the qualitative composition of the remaining elements. The solar panel consists of a huge number of components, and on their quality performance, depends on how many years the panel will serve, and what the efficiency will be in its operation.
The choice of the quality of the panel is very important, if the glass is almost all the panels, different manufacturers, no different, then the film, which laminate the active elements, significantly different in quality. In turn, this can affect the energy efficiency of the panel.
An important feature of solar panels is that, depending on the needs, you can choose those or other types of panels, and with the final result, with the right selection, will please the buyer. This is clearly seen in the case of amorphous silicon (thin-film) panels, which, thanks to their low cost, have a high payback, which means that if you are not constrained in the area where these panels are going to be installed, the cost of 1 kW of electric power produced by these panels will be extremely low , In comparison with more expensive panels.
Science does not stand still and the production technology of solar panels is constantly being improved, while the cost of production is constantly decreasing and energy efficiency is increasing. Especially it concerns the flexible solar panels, from amorphous silicon, which won the hearts of consumers, due to their low cost.